Understanding urban choices for adulthood after Hurricane Katrina

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As young people begin transitioning into adulthood, they need to make a number of important choices. Will they try to improve their education? Can they find a job? Where will they live? The way they answer these questions will have a lot to do with the progress they make in their lives. There are people who decide to go back or stay in places that limits their opportunities. Hurricane Katrina destroyed many cities across the US, leaving neighborhoods even deeper in poverty and more disadvantaged than before.  In such conditions, it seems like it should be easy to determine the factors they take into account in deciding where to move next. However, these decisions turn out to be quite complicated. Tatjana Trebic MCP’16, studies the cases of 53 low-income mothers between the ages of 19 to 29 to understand how these women made choices and trade-offs during and after the reconstruction of their neighborhoods. Based on her analysis, Tatjana creates a  framework to identify the constrains that planners should keep in mind in trying to serve low-income emerging adults in the US. For example, for many young mothers, neighborhood safety competes with social network support when deciding to stay or go back to an old neighborhood. By understanding more about these kinds of tradeoffs regarding neighborhood choice, planners and policy makers will be better equipped to prioritize social services versus other institutional support for these vulnerable groups.

To see Tatjana’s framework, make sure to download her thesis here.

Rebuild by Design competition: a new tool for resilience planning

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New Meadowlands Proposal, MIT CAU + ZUS + Urbanisten

In the past few years, cities have experienced devastating effects of climate change. The physical impacts of major weather events have spurred cities to look for ways of minimizing risks and disruption. Competitions are being used to encourage innovative design, increase public awareness and gain support for investment in resiliency projects. Catie Ferrara, MCP’ 16, uses the federal  competition to analyze three such competitions in New Jersey municipalities.  None actually received any financial support to implement the ideas that emerged from their competitions. While all three efforts appeared to have some positive effects (such as cross-boundary collaboration and increasing awareness of the problem), politics and limited local capacity made it hard to get anything built. Catie provides practical proposals to overcome these challenges. If you’d like to read more, you can download her thesis here.

US-Dutch Flood Resilience Partnerships

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When Hurricane Katrina hit cities across the country, the US government looked for ways to tap the expertise and experience of other cities that had dealt with similar disasters. The US identified the Dutch as having valuable advanced skills and knowledge. Partnerships with individual cities were encouraged. Matthew Willner, MCP’16 explored the gains and losses to both sides associated with these partnerships. Through interviews, with both Dutch and American officials, Matthew sought to verify his concern that the underlying goals of policy transfer partnerships are not always obvious.

Do you think that international efforts to share or transfer policy ideas are always a good idea?

You can download Matt’s thesis to read about his findings here.

Forest City: A Chinese Urban Megaproject in Malaysia

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With the rapid growth of population and increasing international mobility, cities around the world are seeking to attract investors who want to build mixed-use megaprojects. Such investors are presumed to have, for the most part, a positive impact on local economies. However, when the expectations of foreign developers don’t match the political and regulatory expectations of the host country, difficulties can ensue. Marcel Williams, MCP’16, looks at the challenges of mega-project development through the lens of the Forest City case.  Because of the scale and location of this project, local, state, national and international challenges emerged.  There are many lessons to be learned from the experience of Chinese developer Country Garden Ltd. in building a project for 700,000+ people over the next two decades on an environmentally sensitive site.

Will Forest City become an example for future mega-project developments in Asia? Is the potential for economic success of Forest City in jeopardy because of the way regulations are being implemented in Malaysia?

Find out the answers to these questions and more by downloading Marcel’s thesis here.

Boston and Cambridge, MA: A comparative study of the use of green infrastructure

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Source: US EPA Massachusetts Water Resource Authority

In Sasha Shyduroff’s (MCP ’16) thesis, green infrastructure (GI) is defined as engineered systems incorporating green space and natural systems to provide benefits to the public. Such infrastructure can help to address sea level rise, storm surges, inland flooding and many other climate change-related effects. Green infrastructure has been proven to be cheaper and faster to implement than standard infrastructure.  Due to these benefits, GI should be quite popular; however, the actual experience of cities where GI is being advocated raises some concerns. Sasha uses the cases of Boston and Cambridge to identify the socio-political barriers to and drivers of GI, specifically as a means of addressing urban flooding. To learn more, read Sasha’s thesis here.

Adaptation indicators for U.S. coastal cities

sandyIndicators can be used to track progress across different sectors of development, whether they are standardized throughout an industry or unique to a particular organization. It would seem to make sense for every city to use indicators to gauge the success of their climate adaptation plans. Amy Plovnick (MCP ’16) suggests that this is much more difficult than we might imagine. Based on her analysis of adaptation plans along with interviews with staff in several coastal cities, she has found that many cities don’t yet have such indicators in place, even though they are already implementing their adaptation plans. Amy identifies the reasons that lead cities to be in such position. Key barriers include insufficient resources, technical challenges and inadequate organizational structure. There are ways, though, that cities can overcome these problems.

Download Amy’s thesis to see her recommendations.

Iceland’s food system at risk

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Photo by Holly Jacobson, 2016

There is no doubt that islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change. This leads to an array of risks, one being threats to food security. Cheap agricultural imports, one way of trying to ensure food security, can undermine the financial stability of small farm businesses in a country like Iceland. Farmers around the world are already a vulnerable to the physical effects of climate change, but in a country like Iceland the lack of a contingency plan and the failure to adopt adaptation measures for food security are shocking. Holly Jacobson, MCP’16 investigates why Iceland is in this situation. She explores the way governmental and non-governmental actors think about risk and resilience. Understandably, economic concerns are at the top of many people’s list. However, moral, sentimental and ideational values also shape risk perception and ought to be taken into account. How can planners take account of different kinds of vulnerabilities in formulating resiliency plans?

 

Continue reading Holly’s thesis by downloading it here.

Implementing the International Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in South East Asia

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International treaties can exert pressure on national governments to pay attention to certain policy goals, how they choose to implement these goals is up to them. Kelly Heber Dunning (PhD ’16) examines the challenges facing countries that have signed on to the International Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Using a comparative case study of relatively similar (endangered) coral reefs in Indonesia and Malaysia, Kelly looks at the results in the two countries. She discovers (using a variety of underwater monitoring strategies and detailed surveys and interviews) that Indonesia’s co-managed system (government and villages) is more effective than Malaysia’s uses a top-down network of federally managed Marine Parks. Her findings go beyond what the research community has been able to document thus far regarding the advantages and disadvantages of alternative common pool resource management strategies.

If you’d like to learn more about Indonesia’s model and the likelihood it can be replicated, you can download Kelly’s dissertation here.

People’s Climate March: Frontlines of Crisis, Forefront of Change

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On September 21, 2014, 400,000 people converged on the streets of Manhattan for the People’s Climate March (PCM), making it the largest climate change demonstration in U.S. history. The PCM was led by low-income people of color and indigenous people — those most likely to be affected by the health, environmental, and economic impacts of climate change.

Lisa Young, MCP 2015, begins her thesis by telling the story of the “climate movement” starting in the early 1990s. This leads her to expose a deep division between two streams of the movement: the mainstream Climate Action (CA) camp, led by privileged white environmentalists, and the more radical Climate Justice (CJ) camp, led by communities of color. Their ultimate partnership offers an example of how the competing movements were able to developed a collaborative framework by conftonting issues of trust, leadership, funding, framing, and strategy. To learn the full story of how the CA and CJ camps were able to overcome the barriers between them, and grow the size and diversity of the climate movement, you can read Lisa’s thesis here.

Time for a change in Utah: conquering nature or living within its bounds

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More than 150 years ago, the Mormon pioneers entered the Salt Lake Valley and immediately set to work digging irrigation ditches and canals to harness water for their farms. Since then, Utah water managers have solved water supply problems by building large infrastructure projects. Unlike many other states in the region that have implemented aggressive demand-side measures to conserve water, Utah’s conservation efforts have been relatively minimal. At this point, demand-side measures are a tough sell as a way of addressing water needs in Utah. At the same time, supply-side projects are costly for taxpayers and for the environment, take decades to complete, and are based on unreliable forecasts of future water demand and uncertain water sources. Chloe Schaefer, MCP 15, provides a critical comparison of these two traditional strategies and makes a case for water conservation as the best option for the state. She points out that this would require a big shift on the dominant water planning mindset. While behavior is a hard thing to change, Chloe points out ways of encouraging this shift. You can see more at the following link, here.